Health

Likelihood of Contracting HIV

There are only a handful of activities that put you at risk of contracting HIV. This is because the virus is not airborne and can only be transmitted through bodily fluids.


In this article we address some of the concerns around the likelihood of contracting HIV


liklihood of contracting HIV

These activities are: Unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing needles, breastfeeding and/or direct blood to blood contact with an HIV positive person.

You are not at risk of contracting HIV if you hug or kiss someone, or share cups, drink bottles or utensils with someone. Body fluids like saliva, sweat or urine do not contain enough of the virus to infect another person.

One of the most common ways to pass on HIV is through unprotected sex with a person living with HIV. The risk factors of this change for different groups and are dependent on different circumstances. Here, gay and bisexual men are the most at-risk group, followed by the African Community.

What sexual activities place you at risk of contracting HIV?

  • Anal sex without a condom (receptive/bottom) – Anal sex without a condom is the highest risk activity for contracting HIV. This is because of the biology of the anus which is designed to absorb nutrients into the bloodstream from food passing through. This means it can absorb the HIV virus from infected semen. There is also a very high concentration of cells in the anus that are especially vulnerable to HIV infection, unlike other parts of the body.
  • Anal sex without a condom (insertive/top) – HIV is more easily transmitted from the insertive to the receptive partner, but neither position is safe. During sex, the lining of the rectum of the receptive partner (‘bottom’) can get damaged and HIV can enter the bloodstream of the insertive partner either through the eye of the penis or through small cuts on the skin.
  • Vaginal sex without a condom (receptive) – While not as extreme of a risk as anal sex, vaginal sex without a condom still poses a high risk of passing on HIV from infected semen or pre-cum. The virus can be transmitted through the lining of the vagina and absorbed into the bloodstream.
  • Vaginal sex without a condom (insertive) – While being the insertive partner in vaginal sex carries less risk than being receptive, HIV in infected vaginal fluids can still enter a man’s body through the tip of his penis, the inner folds of his foreskin, or through small cuts on the skin.
  • Oral sex – Oral sex presents a very low risk of HIV transmission. There is an enzyme in saliva that acts as a natural defence to HIV. Having an open and bleeding wound in your mouth does increase the risk of oral HIV transmission slightly, but there would need to be a significant amount of semen containing a high HIV viral load coming into direct contact with the wound. If the wound were very minor, it’s unlikely that this would happen.
  • Masturbation/hand job/wanking – HIV cannot be passed on through skin to skin contact, e.g., from someone’s hands or lips touching a penis or vagina.

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Other risk factors:

Needles: Blood to blood transmission most commonly occurs when a needle is shared between injecting drug users, where one user is HIV positive. Due to the work of Needle Exchanges across the country, this is no longer a regular occurrence and the risk factor for intravenous drug users has been largely reduced.

Donating Blood: Visit our donating blood page for more information about your rights and safety around blood transfusions and HIV.

Vertical transmission: This describes HIV transmission from mother to child. It is one of the more common risk factors in developing countries, but due to technology and medical screening, it’s a very rare occurrence.

 

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founder or laminitis in horses

Providing Pain Relief For Laminitic Horses

Founder or Laminitis in Horses

Warmer weather brings with it new green grasses and other lush greens for our horse’s to munch on and with that comes an increase in the number of cases of laminitis and founder. The trigger mechanism(s) for this condition in horses has been hotly debated, as well as how to treat it. There are multiple causes for this condition ranging from mechanical to metabolic. The most prevalent cause, particularly in the spring, appears to be dietary/metabolic issues at work and can be triggered by the intake of feed and/or forages with high sugar contents.

What Is Laminitis/Founder?

Laminitis is an extremely painful condition of the sensitive laminae of the horse hoof in which the bonds between the laminae become compromised and breakdown. This condition is characterized by a very tender sole, particularly near the apex of the frog, heat in the hoof and an unwillingness to move. Because of the excruciating pain in the feet, the horse will typically find a soft place to put its front feet on, sometimes in an elevated location such as a pile of hay. In severe cases, the coffin bone detaches from the hoof wall, rotating downward and can even push through the sole of the hoof. This is the condition known commonly as founder.

 

How Can Equine Massage Help With Laminitis Pain Relief?founder or laminitis in horses

As horse owners, it is hard to watch our horses suffer with the pain of laminitis. We want to do whatever we can to make sure that they are as comfortable as we can make them. I’ve had good success in providing pain relief to horses with mild to severe cases of laminitis using equine massage techniques.

 


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The coffin bone is attached to the deep digital flexor tendon, which is in turn attached to the flexor muscles further up the back of the horse’s leg. In horses with laminitic pain, the muscles in the neck, shoulders and down the back of the legs become very tight in response to compensating for the painful feet. The problem ends up compounding on itself as the tight muscles contract and shorten putting more tension on the already compromised coffin bone and causing even more pain. Massaging the triceps and flexor muscles down the backside of the legs helps to relieve tension on the coffin bone by relaxing the associated soft tissue attachments in the leg, as well as the neck and shoulder which have been in a constant state of contraction.

How Do You Massage A Horse’s Legs?founder or laminitis in horses

When doing a massage on a horse with laminitis, I will typically start at the top and work my way down. You’ll find the rhomboid and trapezius muscles will be very tight because the horse uses the weight of its head as momentum to move its painful front end by throwing the head upward with each step on the painful limb. I always start with a gentler touch at first, then gradually get firmer, reading the horse to know how much pressure is enough. I will use a variety of strokes ranging from petrissage to effleurage to tapotement.

I’ll work each area no more than 5 to 10 minutes. When you get to the muscles at the back of the leg, you can be more effective if the horse’s leg is flexed, and of course do not use tapotement on the lower leg muscles as it can be painful to the horse. You can usually rest the leg on your knee for a minute or so at a time before the horse might need to shift its weight over to the other leg. I massage even the tendons of the lower leg and down to the top of the hoof. Be respectful of your horse’s tolerance for pain. Some horses are more stoic about it than others, but they will all give you signs when they need a break.

You can repeat the massage every day as needed, but usually 2 to 3 times per week is sufficient to see a noticeable difference in your horse’s comfort level. As your horse improves and is less painful, you can also add some extension stretches to the equation to help stretch the soft tissue out.

Always consult your veterinarian before starting any therapy on your horse to make sure there are no contraindications. If you suspect your horse may have laminitis, you should contact your veterinarian immediately.

Routines for Dental Care

Routines for Dental Care

Welcome to Routines for Dental Care Section
by Dr. Pakravan Moenchengladbach


In this first series we cover root canal, what it is and how it is treated.
Routines for Dental Care

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What is Root Canal?
When the pulp of the tooth is infected, damaged or decayed, dentists usually perform a root canal. The pulp refers to the soft tissue that runs all the ways from the crown of a tooth till the roots. It is this part of the tooth that also contains the nerves. In a root canal, the pulp and nerves are removed. The space created is then filled. However, the costs of the treatment are quite high and most patients would prefer not to have one. The good news is that there are some alternatives to root canal.

When the decay inside the tooth is near the nerves, usually the procedure is performed. However, at times, the dentist may decide not to do a root canal. Instead, after cleaning the decay out, the space is filled with a sedative or medicated filling. This can help with pain in the nerve. It is this pain that makes the procedure a necessity. But because of the sedative filling, the pain is prevented. This filling is temporary and after around a month, the filling is removed and a permanent filling is placed.

Dr. Pakravan MoenchengladbachTreatment
If the root of the tooth is infected, the dentist may first try to treat the infection with antibiotics. If the infection clears out after the treatment, then root canal is not performed. Some of the antibiotics used are penicillin and amoxicillin. However, it may take a few days for the antibiotic to start working. During this time, the person would require painkillers to help relieve the pain. Painkillers such as NSAIDs are usually prescribed. However, if the pain is severe, then a stronger painkiller is given. This alternative to root canal may not be feasible in all cases.

Dr. Pakravan MoenchengladbachAlternatives
The last alternative is extraction. Not only is it a quicker option, it also costs less. The extraction can be done by an oral dental surgeon or a general dentist. After the extraction, the dentist may advise the person to have a bridge, partial denture or implant to fill the gap. This is recommended as the teeth on either side of the extraction will not have support and in the long run they will get loose or misaligned.

 

This replacement could end up adding to the cost of the extraction. Hence, before you opt for an extraction, it is important to speak to your dentist to find out how the tooth would be replaced.


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Herpes Home Remedies

Herpes Symptoms and Treatment

Millions of people have been infected with a form of herpes, but many of them don’t know it. As a result they continue to spread it to other people. Knowing the various symptoms of the virus to be on the lookout for is important. They are too often dismissed as jock itch or a yeast infection. You should see a doctor if you experience the various symptoms of herpes. This is a very serious virus that you need to get treatment for as soon as possible.

DID YOU KNOW?

There are actually allot of Herpes Home Remedies click here for more info on Herpes Home Remedies

Since there are many forms of herpes the symptoms will vary in severity. The immune system of the individual also plays a role in how terrible their outbreaks will be. Both the oral and genital forms of herpes are the same just in different locations. This being said you can give someone genital herpes by offering them oral sex while you have an outbreak on your lips.

Those blisters found on the lips known as cold sores are definitely a form of herpes. Many people don’t realize that so they continue engaging in sexual behaviors and kissing other people. Even a very small cold sore can result in the herpes virus being spread to someone else.

Some of the common symptoms of herpes include redness, sores, blisters, puffiness, and bumps. They may be quite visible or very mild so they level of discomfort is going to vary by individual. The outbreaks from herpes are going to come and go in cycles. You may get an outbreak every 20-25 days that lasts 5-7 days. You may go months before you get an outbreak that lasts for a couple of days. Common triggers of outbreaks include drinking excessively and abusing drugs.

In the most severe cases of herpes the symptoms include pain, cuts, and discharge from either the penis or the vagina that have a heavy smell to them. There may even be pain that occurs when the person urinates. Check the glands at the back of the neck to see if they are swollen as this too is a symptom of herpes. The various symptoms a person experiences can be different each time they experience an outbreak.

Since there is no cure for herpes the best someone can do is protect themselves from contracting it. This includes safe sex if you or your partner are also engaging in the activity with someone else. If you do contract herpes you need to see your doctor for medication to help control the outbreaks. It is also your duty to tell those you have been sexually active with about it so they can get checked as well.

If you found this information on Herpes Symptoms useful, you’ll also want to read about Herpes Cure

Gastric Bypass Surgery

Gastri Bypass Surgery


Everything You Need to Know About Gastric Bypass Surgery


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Patients who have undergone a gastric bypass surgery may also need to bring about a major change in their lifestyles. A gastric bypass surgery diet is intended to bring about considerable weight loss. Learning new eating habits and following the diet correctly will help maintain the weight loss over a longer period of time.

A gastric bypass diet includes foods that are high in vitamins, minerals and protein, and low in fat, fiber, calories and sugar. Since a gastric bypass diet does not provide enough natural vitamins and minerals, most physicians recommend that the patients take chewable multivitamin tablets and extra iron, calcium, or vitamin B-12 tablets, if needed.


 

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A gastric bypass diet has several stages. It starts from a menu comprising of only liquids and progressing on to small meals of soft, high-protein foods. The quantity of meals prescribed will typically be much lesser than what the patient is used to. The foods that form a part of a gastric bypass surgery diet must be very smooth in texture.

In the first stage of the gastric bypass diet, a patient consumes only clear liquids. This diet usually lasts for a day or two after the operation. If no problems are experienced with clear liquids, the gastric bypass diet advances to high-protein liquids. This stage of the diet is started before the patient is discharged from the hospital. It may last for 1 to 2 weeks. The physician will indicate when it is time to advance to a soft or purée diet. Some patients are able to start this diet after they have been out of the hospital for about two weeks. The regular diet starts about 8 weeks after the gastric bypass surgery. While this diet includes all five-food groups, it is important to start with high-protein foods, such as lean meats or milk, at every meal.

At all stages of a gastric bypass diet, the manner in which food is consumed is as important as the food itself. Patients must remember that their new surgically altered stomach can only hold ½ a cup of food at a time. They can eat 3 to 6 small meals a day and the food must be chewed and eaten slowly. It is also important to avoid over eating and to prevent dehydration by drinking a lot of fluids. Patients should drink 1 cup of water or low-calorie beverage between each meal. They should have six cups (48 ounces) of fluids each day. Patients should take care to sip their dinks slowly, such that that it lasts 30 minutes or more. If these steps are followed, the patient can expect a quick recover from the surgery and a significant and stable weight loss.

Medical Weight Loss

Medical Weight Loss


Medical Weight Loss


America is leading the world in obesity, with an alarming 30% obesity rate. So, it’s no surprise that losing weight is a topic on everyone’s mind. As the obesity rate skyrockets, miracle diets and weight loss solutions have become increasingly popular, bombarding the public with new ways to lose weight. However, most of these popular diets are completely ineffective or have limited results. Some popular diets, the Atkins diet for example, delivers results, but is extremely unhealthy and even dangers to the human body. Even excessive exercising can seriously harm the body.

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The best, safest and most effective way to lose weight is through a medical weight loss plan assigned by doctors at a medical weight management center or physicians office. Medical weight loss is a healthy approach to losing weight fast and safely. Medical weight loss centers have doctors that develop detailed weight reduction programs that are completely personalized. These types of programs include an individual body composition analysis, doctor-supervised food plans, metabolism regulation, appetite management, lifestyle and motivational coaching, and scientific activity recommendations.

Unlike the commercial diet programs, medical weight loss is personally designed. It analyzes more than food intake and physical activity. Medical doctors are able to comprehend how a unique, specific health profile can access weight loss challenges, but also how those challenges can best be overcome. When developing these plans, doctors take everything into consideration, including medical history, prescriptions, hormonal imbalances, metabolic rate and multiple other medical factors that are specific to the patient.

Medical Weight Loss

Doctors at weight management clinics are able to design and regulate diets. Accelerated plans are ideal for patients that have a busy, active life. This type of plan includes six weeks of one-on-one visits with a doctor to perform medical tests that monitor the body’s progression. These plans contain high-nutrition calorie-controlled diets with vitamin regulation to ensure that patients are still getting the essential nutrients needed without adding in extra calories.

Low Calorie Diet plans are similar to accelerated plans. They are also high-nutrition calorie-controlled diets that are personally prescribed; these plans are monitored much more closely. The best part about having a doctor prescribe a low calorie diet is that the plan can be adjusted and modified to include calorie-specific foods the patient just cannot live without.

Medical weight loss centers also offer appetite suppressants. Appetite suppressants jump start weight loss and weight loss plans, but must be heavily monitored to ensure the patient is losing weight at a healthy, positive rate.


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